A CASE STUDY OF GEO- CLIMATIC, FLORAL SPECIES & NATURAL DISASTERS OF NAINITAL DISTRICT
Landscape Architecture Design Series I Gautam & Gautam Associates I Ankur Gautam I 2 MAY, 2020
CLIMATE OF NAINITAL :
Nainital experiences subtropical highland climate. Nainital has a relative cool summer. The hottest month is July with temperature ranging from 16.4 °C (61.5 °F) to 23.5 °C (74.3 °F), while the coldest month is January with temperature ranging from 1.7 °C (35.1 °F) to 10.7 °C (51.3 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Nainital was 30 °C (86 °F) recorded on 18 June 1972, while the lowest temperature was −5.6 °C (21.9 °F) recorded on 17 January 1953.
FLORA OF NAINITAL :
The areas around Nainital (in the middle Himalayan ranges up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft), a temperate zone), is rich in flora (typical temperate climate plants) and fauna. The trees and bushes grown in the region (lake's basin) with their botanical and common Indian names (in parenthesis) are : Quercus incana Oak (Banj), Aesculus indica (Pangar or Horse chestnuts), Juglans regia (Akhrot or walnut), Populus ciliata (Hill Pipal, a sacred tree), Fraxinus micrantha (Ash tree or Angu), Platanus orientalis (Chinar), Rubus lasiocarpus (Hisalu), Rosa moschata (Kunj or Musk rose), Berberis asiatica (Kilmore), Cupressus torulosa (Surai or Himalayan cypress), Rhododendron arboreum (Buruns), Cedrus deodara (Deodar), Salix acmophylla (Weeping Willow), and Pinus (Pine).
Several species of medicinal flora and horticulture plants have also been found in the lake. The Aquatic Macrophytic vegetation include Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton crispus, Polygonum glabrum, Polygonum amphibium and Polygonum hydropiper (Water pepper).
The fishes found in the lake are generally carps Mahseer, and the mirror carp which breed several times during one spawning season during May to September. Two species of Mahaseer fish viz., Tor tor: The red finned mahseer and the Tor putitora: The yellow finned mahseer, a food fish which
grows to varying sizes from 20 to 60 cm (7.87 to 23.62 inches) are found. Three species of Hill Trout are found in the lake: the Schizothorax sinuatus, Schizothorax richardsoni and Schizothorax plagiostornus. The imported fish bred in the lake is Mirror carp or Cyprinus carpio. Gambusia affinis
also called Mosquitofish has been introduced in the lake as a biocontrol measure to control Mosquito larvae.
A large portion of the land is converted into orchards for growing peaches, pears, apricots, kafals, strawberries, etc. Apple orchards, a prime attraction, are found along the Ramgarh and Mukteshwar belt. Lichis that grow in the Ramnagar area are quite famous. Floriculture is also coming up in on a large scale due to the favourable climate for growing flowers. In the Tarai and Bhabhar belt, a number of plants having medicinal value grow. For example, herbs like Ashok, Bhringraj, Bhilwa, Varun, and Gambhari.
NATURAL DISASTER TYPOLOGIES OF NAINITAL :
NAINITAL being at close proximity to the Himalayan Foothills is prone to the following disasters :- EARTHQUAKE ( ZONE 4 )- LANDSLIDES ( HIGH – MODERATE )- FLOODS ( RARELY ANY) Landslides & Earthquakes are major Natural Hazards in Nainital zone. Floods are a rare issue here. Special measures shall be taken while designing any built structure or Landscaping Scheme, of Landslides & Earthquake hazards.
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